Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani
|Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani
حمد بن خليفة آل ثاني
|Reign||27 June 1995 – 25 June 2013|
|Predecessor||Khalifa bin Hamad Al Thani|
|Successor||Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani|
|Reign||27 June 1995 – 29 October 1996|
|Predecessor||Khalifa bin Hamad Al Thani|
|Successor||Abdullah bin Khalifa Al Thani|
|Spouse||Mariam bint Muhammad
Mozah bint Nasser
Noora bint Khalid
|House||House of Thani|
|Father||Khalifa bin Hamad Al Thani|
|Born||1 January 1952
Hamad seized power in a bloodless palace Coup d'état in 1995. During his 18-year rule, Qatar's natural gas production reached 77 million tonnes, making Qatar the richest country in the world with the average income in the country US$86,440 a year per person. During his reign several sports and diplomatic events took place in Qatar,including 2006 Asian Games, 2012 UN Climate Change Conference, Doha Agreement, Hamas–Fatah Doha agreement and the 2022 FIFA World Cup. He established the Qatar Investment Authority; by 2013 it had invested over $100 billion around the world, most prominent of investments being The Shard, Barclays Bank, Heathrow Airport, Harrods, Paris Saint-Germain F.C., Volkswagen, Siemens and Royal Dutch Shell.
During Hamad 's rule, Qatar hosted two US military bases. It also remained close with Hamas and Iran. He supported and funded rebel movements, particularly in Libya and Syria during the Arab Spring while maintaining political stability at home. Sheikh founded news media group Al Jazeera, through which he maintained his influence over the Arab World. He also played a part in negotiations between US and the Taliban. In June 2013 Sheikh Hamad in his brief televised addressee announced that he would hand power to his 33-year-old son, Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani.
- 1 Early years and education
- 2 Reign
- 3 Achievements
- 4 Foreign relations
- 5 Marriages and children
- 6 Titles, styles and honours
- 7 Sports investments
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 External links
Early years and educationSheikh Hamad was born 1952. His mother died soon after the birth and he was raised by his brother.
He graduated from the British Royal Military Academy at Sandhurst in 1971 and commissioned as a lieutenant colonel. After graduation he was made commander of a mobile brigade, which later became a force called "Hamad Brigade". In 1972 Hamad had the rank of general, and became army chief of staff. Next he was appointed commander-in-chief of Qatar's armed forces with the rank of major general. In 1977 he was named inister of defense.
Sheikh Hamad was appointed Heir Apparent of Qatar in 1977 and assumed the post until 1995. In the early 1980s, he led the Supreme Planning Council, which sets Qatar's basic economic and social policies. From 1992 Hamad had a growing responsibility for the day-to-day running of the country, including the development of Qatar's oil and natural gas resources. On 27 June 1995, after deposing his father in a palace coup, Sheikh Hamad became Emir of Qatar and was crowned on 20 June 2000.
ReignIn the early 1980s, Hamad led the Supreme Planning Council, which sets Qatar's basic economic and social policies. Starting in 1992, Hamad's father handed over responsibility for the day-to-day running of the country, including the development of Qatar's oil and natural gas resources. With the support of his family, Sheikh Hamad took control of the country in 1995 while his father was on vacation abroad. While his father Khalifa bin Hamad Al Thani was in Geneva, Switzerland, Hamad bin Khalifa deposed him in a bloodless coup d'état. Hamad bin Khalifa engaged an American law firm to freeze his father's bank accounts abroad, thereby defeating a possible countercoup. Thereafter, his father lived in exile in France and Abu Dhabi until he returned to Qatar in 2004.
In a break with the traditional role, his second wife Sheikha Mozah bint Nasser Al Missned has been a visible advocate for education and children's causes.
A sportsman and an accomplished diver, Hamad has played an active role in promoting and developing athletics in Qatar. His activism has enhanced the country's involvement and performance in a number of international competitions, including: winning an Olympic medal in track and field; hosting a wide variety of international sporting events such as the 15th Asian Games, GCC, Asian and World Youth soccer championships; and initiating the Qatar Open Tennis Championship which has grown to become one of two premier tennis competitions in the Middle East.
Under his rule the Qatari government helped to fund the Al Jazeera]news network by an emiri decree. In an analysis of Al Jazeera, Hugh Miles said that diplomats from other countries know that the Emir is the real power behind Al Jazeera but he also quotes a network spokesman denying 'countless times' this accusation, adding that many independent news sources also have subsidies from their respective governments without this implying editorial dabbling and explaining that trying to coerce the kind of journalists Al Jazeera has would be like trying to 'herd cats'. Sheik Hamad is a distant cousin of the network chairman, Hamad bin Thamer Al Thani, who was previously Minister of Information in the Emir Al-Thani government. Following the initial US$137 million grant from Emir Al-Thani, Al Jazeera had aimed to become self-sufficient through advertising by 2001, but when this failed to occur, the Emir agreed to several consecutive loans on a year-by-year basis (US$30 million in 2004, according to Arnaud de Borchgrave). At an 3 October 2001 press conference, Colin Powell tried to persuade Sheik Hamad to shut down Al Jazeera while The New York based organization Fairness and Accuracy in Reporting commented that in those efforts, "Powell and other U.S. officials were reportedly upset by the channel re-airing old interviews with bin Laden and the inclusion of guests that are too critical of the United States on its programs." The Washington Post reported in 2005 that Sheik Hamad was under pressure to privatize the network.
On 25 June 2013 Hamad handed over power to his son Tamin in a televised speech. In regards to the shift in power, Hamad said: "The time has come to open a new page in the journey of our nation that would have a new generation carry the responsibilities."
AchievementsUnder his reign, the country won the right to stage the 2022 FIFA World Cup in Doha, the first event of its kind to occur in the Middle East. Under the patronage of Sheikh Hamad and his wife Sheikha Mozah bint Nasser Al-Misnad, several world-class academic institutions have opened campuses in Doha, including Carnegie Mellon University, Georgetown University, Northwestern University, Texas A&M University and Weill Cornell Medical College.
ArtsIn the arts, Sheikh Hamad established the Qatar Museums Authority in 2005 which built the I. M. Pei designed Museum of Islamic Art Doha. Since opening, Qatar has become the world's biggest contemporary art buyer, famously purchasing Cézanne's The Card Players in 2012 for over $250 million USD. The Museum Authority sponsored Takashi Murakami's EGO exhibit in Doha which ran from 9 February to 24 June 2012, Damien Hirst's retrospective at Tate Modern in Spring and Summer 2012 and his upcoming exhibition Relic, slated to open in Doha in October 2013. In July 2013, in conjunction with Miuccia Prada and the Prada Foundation, QMA launched CURATE, a global search for curatorial talent. Additionally, the Doha Film Institute was established in 2009 which in partnership with the Tribeca Film Festival (founded by Robert De Niro), created the Doha Tribeca Film Festival that ran from 2009 - 2012. The Doha Film Institute is producing Salma Hayek's upcoming animated adaptation of Khalil Gibran's classic novel The Prophet, with "Lion King" director Roger Allers co-ordinating the process. DFI is also credited as a production company on several other films, including Just Like a Woman starring Sienna Miller, The Reluctant Fundamentalist directed by Mira Nair which opened 69th Venice International Film Festival, and Kanye West's Cruel Summer - a short film which shot in Doha and premiered during the 2012 Cannes Film Festival. In February 2013, they announced a $100 million feature film fund with Participant Media, a production company founded by billionaire Jeffrey Skoll, who was the first employee and also first president of internet auction firm eBay.
EconomyIn 2005, under the direction of Sheikh Hamad and the former Prime Minister of Qatar Sheikh Hamad bin Jassim bin Jaber Al Thani, the Qatar Investment Authority was established, a sovereign wealth fund to manage the country's oil and natural gas surpluses. The Qatar Investment Authority and its subsidiaries have acquired many businesses abroad, including London's iconic department store Harrods from entrepreneur Mohammed Al-Fayed, Paris based department store Printemps, French football club Paris Saint-Germain F.C., a former 10% stake in Porsche, a 75% stake in film studio Miramax which they acquired from Disney, a 2% stake in media conglomerate and Universal Music Group parent company Vivendi, a $100 million USD investment in Chernin Group - whose founder Peter Chernin was COO of News Corp and President of Fox, a 1% stake in luxury goods manufacturer Louis Vuitton Moët Hennessy, a 6% stake in Credit Suisse, a 12.6% stake in Barclays and several other major companies. They also backed Glencore's $31 billion USD takeover bid for Xstrata. Qatar is the largest property owner in London with their holdings including Europe's tallest building The Shard, Olympic Village and Park Lane's InterContinental Hotel. They also own several hotels in Cannes including the Majestic Hotel, Grand Hyatt Cannes Hôtel Martinez and Carlton Hotel. QIA was considered to have one of the leading bids in the sales of both Anschutz Entertainment Group and Hulu. As of May 2013, it was reported the Investment Authority is in talks to purchase Neiman Marcus and Bergdorf Goodman.
Sheikh Hamad is famous for helping to establish the first Arab international news network, Al Jazeera, when he provided a loan of QAR 500 million ($137 million) to sustain Al Jazeera through its first five years. Sheikh Hamad's support of Al Jazeera has played an integral role in sparking the Arab Spring and creating uprisings in Tunisia, Egypt, Libya, Yemen and Syria.
In October 2012, Sheikh Hamad made a historic visit to Gaza and pledged $400 million USD in humanitarian aid to Hamas, to build infrastructure projects and hospitals. Despite Qatar's ties to Hamas, they maintain diplomatic and business relations with Israel. Sheikh Hamad provided financial and material support to opposition rebels in both the Libyan civil war, which led to the overthrow of Muammar Gaddafi, and the ongoing Syrian civil war which seeks to oust President Bashar al-Assad. It has been reported that he has also provided support to jihadist organizations such as Ansar Dine and the Movement for Unity and Jihad in West Africa, who are fighting for independence in the Northern Mali conflict, as well as the Al-Nusra Front in Syria.
On June 25, 2013, Sheikh Hamad announced he would be handing over power to his 33-year old son Sheikh Tamim. The move was seen as groundbreaking for the Middle East, where leaders typically stay in office until their death.
Foreign relationsThe Emir made a $100 million donation for the relief of New Orleans following the 2005 Hurricane Katrina. He was a key person in the cease fire during the 2006 Lebanon War and contributed majorly in the relief of damaged areas. In 2012, the Emir proposed deploying Arab troops to reduce killings in the Syrian civil war. He provided two military bases for foreign troops, Al Udeid Air Base and Camp As Sayliyah.
Despite the prevalence of anti-Israel sentiment within the Arab world, he had previously maintained friendly relations with Israel. He met Foreign Minister of Israel Tzipi Livni (25 September 2007) in New York City. This marked the first real attempt by any leader in the Persian Gulf to pursue dialogue with Israel. However, Qatar severed diplomatic ties with Israel in 2009 in response to Israel's actions during the Gaza War. The emir has also expressed his objection to Israeli settlement policy, especially the Judaization of Jerusalem.
Visit to GazaIn October 2012, the Emir made a landmark visit to Gaza by being the first head of state to go there since the 2006 election of Hamas and the imposition of a blockade by Israel. He took a flight to Egypt before being driven into Gaza. When there, the emir was thought to be launching a $254 million reconstruction project in the territory, and giving an address to the Palestinian people. Palestine's interior ministry was said to have a "well-prepared plan" to provide security for the emir during his stay. Incidents nevertheless continued.
Criticism and allegations of support to US designated terrorist organizationsIn December 2012, the New York Times accused the Qatari government of funding the Al-Nusra Front, a U.S. government designated terrorist organization. Others[who?] have noted the Emir's visit to Gaza and meeting with Hamas, which houses a militant wing, Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades. In January 2013, French politicians again accused the Emir's government of giving material support to Islamist groups in Mali and the French newspaper Le Canard enchaîné quoted an unnamed source in French military intelligence saying that “The MNLA, al Qaeda-linked Ansar Dine and MUJAO have all received cash from Doha.”
Marriages and children
- He married his first wife Sheikha Mariam bint Muhammad Al Thani, who
is the daughter of his first cousin, Sheikh Muhammad bin Hamad bin
Abdullah Al Thani. Hamad and his first wife have two sons and six daughters:
- Sheikh Mishaal bin Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani (born 1972)
- Sheikh Fahd bin Hamad bin Khalifa Al-Thani
- Sheikha Aisha bint Hamad bin Khalifa Al-Thani
- Sheikha Mashael bint Hamad bin Khalifa Al-Thani
- Sheikha Fatima bint Hamad bin Khalifa Al-Thani
- Sheikha Rawdah bint Hamad bin Khalifa Al-Thani
- Sheikha Hussah bint Hamad bin Khalifa Al-Thani
- Sheikha Sara bint Hamad bin Khalifa Al-Thani – Program Coordinator for Reach Out to Asia-Qatar (ROTAQ)
- His second wife is Sheikha Mozah bint Nasser Al Missned (born 8 August 1959, Al-Khor), the daughter of Nasser bin Abdullah Al Missned. Together they have five sons and two daughters:
- Sheikh Jasim bin Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani (born 1978) – heir apparent of Qatar until 2003
- Sheikh Tamim bin Hamad bin Khalifa Al-Thani, Prince of Qatar (born 1980) – heir apparent of Qatar (2003–2013), current Emir of Qatar
- Sheikha Al-Mayassa bint Hamad bin Khalifa Al-Thani (born 1983)
- Sheikh Joaan bin Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani (born 1985)
- Sheikh Mohammed bin Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani (born 1988)
- Sheikh Khalifa bin Hamad bin Khalifa Al-Thani (born 1991)
- Sheikha Hind bint Hamad bin Khalifa Al-Thani – director of the Emir's Office since 2009
- Hamad also has a third wife, Sheikha Noora bint Khalid Al-Thani,
daughter of Sheikh Khalid bin Hamad Al Thani, who was the minister of
the interior. Together they have four sons and five daughters:
- Sheikh Khalid bin Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani
- Sheikh Abdullah bin Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani – president of the Al-Rayyan Sports Club
- Sheikh Thani bin Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani
- Sheikh Al Qaqa bin Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani
- Sheikha Lulwaa bint Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani
- Sheikha Maha bint Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani
- Sheikha Dana bint Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani
- Sheikha Al-Anood bint Hamad bin Khalifa Al-Thani
- Sheikha Mariam bint Hamad bin Khalifa Al-Thani
Titles, styles and honours
|Monarchical styles of
The Emir of Qatar
|Reference style||His Highness|
|Spoken style||Your Highness|
Titles and styles
|This section of a biographical article needs additional citations for verification. (June 2013)|
- Sheikh Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani (1952–1972)
- His Excellency Sheikh Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani (1972–1977)
- His Highness Sheikh Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani, Heir Apparent of Qatar (1977–1995)
- His Highness Sheikh Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani, Emir of the State of Qatar (1995–2013)
- His Highness Sheikh Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani, The Father Emir (2013–Present)
Honours and awardsSheikh Hamad received numerous honours and awards, both during and before his time as Emir:
Sports investmentsMedia sources claimed that Sheikh Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani made a bid for Manchester United on 11 February 2011. Qatari Holdings offered £1.65 billion to Malcolm Glazer, the current American owner of the club. This follows a series of endeavors by the Emir and other Qataris into the World Football community, following Qatar's successful bid for the 2022 World Cup, and the Qatar Foundation's recent £125m shirt deal with FC Barcelona. In mid-June 2011, rumours resurfaced that Qatari Holdings were preparing a £2 Billion takeover bid and that the funding, that the club had been using for transfers since the start of June, was actually supplied by the Qataris and not the Glazer Family. In 2012 it was rumoured that Sheik Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani was in bid for Rangers F.C.. On 30 March 2012 Sheik Al Thani offered to buy KF Tirana, although the details have yet to be published.
Khalifa bin Hamad Al Thani
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
|Khalifa bin Hamad Al Thani|
|Reign||22 February 1972 – 27 June 1995|
|Predecessor||Ahmad ibn `Ali Al Thani|
|Successor||Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani|
|House||House of Thani|
|Father||Hamad bin Abdullah Al Thani|
|Born|| 17 September 1932
Early yearsSheikh Khalifa was born in Rayyan in 1932. He was the son of Hamad bin Abdullah Al Thani and grandson of Abdullah bin Jassim Al Thani.
CareerIn 1957, Khalifa was named as the minister of education. Then he was appointed the deputy Emir. He was named as the heir apparent on 24 October 1960. In the 1960s he also served as the prime minister and the minister of finance.
On 22 February 1972, Sheikh Khalifa became the Emir of Qatar, seizing power from his cousin and then emir Ahmad bin Ali Al Thani. His initial activity was the process of the reorganization of the government. Next he appointed a foreign minister and an adviser to himself regarding the day-to-day affairs. On 19 April 1972, he amended the Constitution and expanded the Cabinet by appointing more ministers. Diplomatic relations were also established with a number of the foreign countries at ambassadorial level.
On 18 July 1989, the cabinet was reshuffled for the first time, replacing most of the previous ministers and making it consist of 15 ministers. The Cabinet was again reshuffled under his premiership on 1 September 1992, expanding it to 17 members.
The state revenue from oil sector had increased as the result of the rising of a number of production sharing agreements with foreign oil companies. Two production-sharing agreements were signed with the Standard Oil Company of Ohio in January 1985 and Amoco in February 1986. In January 1989, another production sharing agreement was signed between Qatar and the France State owned oil company Elf Aquitaine. In the middle of 1991, production of gas in the Qatar North Field, the world’s largest single field of non-associated gas commenced, which has proven gas of reserves of around 250 trillion cubic feet and probable reserves of 500 trillion cubic feet. While the search for finding more oil deposits in Qatar continued, Qatar built an industrial base in order to reduce dependence on the oil sector.
CoupWhile Khalifa bin Hamad Al Thani was staying in Geneva, Switzerland, in July 1995, his son Hamad bin Khalifa took the throne. Khalifa lived in France until he returned to Qatar in 2004.
ViewsHe was more conservative than his son, but in general he is thought to be the one who began the country's process of modernization.
Marriages and childrenSheikh Khalifa has five sons and ten daughters from four wives.
- Sheikha Amna bint Hassan bin Abdulla Al Thani
- Abdelaziz bin Khalifa, Petroleum and finance minister (1972–1991)
- Shaikha Noora bint Khalifa
- Second wife from Al Atiyyah family
- Hamad bin Khalifa, Emir of Qatar from 1995 to 2013.
- Shaikha Hisssa bint Khalifa
- Shaikha Amina bint Khalifa
- Shaikha Jafla bint Khalifa
- Shaikha Amal bint Khalifa
- Sheikha Rudha bint Jassim bin Jabr Al Thani
- Abdullah bin Khalifah Al Thani, Prime Minister (1996–2007)
- Muhammed bin Khalifa
- Shaikha Aisha bint Khalifa
- Shaikha Shaikha bint Khalifa
- Shaikha Mouza bint Khalifa
- Shaikha Maryam bint Khalifa
- Mouza bint Ali bin Saud Al Thani
- Jassim bin Khalifa
- Shaikha Al Anud bint Khalifa
- Shaikha Nouf bint Khalifa
- "Qatar: The Al-Thani Dynasty". The Royal Ark. p. 7.
- "Thani, Sheikh Khalifa bin Hamad al-". Hutchinson Encyclopedia. Farlex.
- "Qatar rulers". Rulers. Retrieved 27 June 2013.
- "Line of succession: The Al Thani rule in Qatar". Gulf News. 24 June 2013. Retrieved 27 June 2013.
- Kamrava, Mehran (Summer 2009). "Royal Factionalism and Political Liberalization in Qatar". The Middle East Journal 63 (3): 401–420. Retrieved 27 June 2013.
- Helem Chapin Metz, ed. (1993). "The Al Thani". Persian Gulf States: A Country Study. Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress.
- "Qatar PM seizes power from cousin". Ottowa Citizen (Beirut). AP. 23 February 1972. Retrieved 27 June 2013.
- "Sheikh Khalifa Bin Hamad Al Thani (1972–1995)". Qatar News Agency.
- "Prince deposes father in Qatar". Deseret News. 27 June 1995. Retrieved 26 June 2013.
Khalifa bin Hamad Al ThaniBorn: 1932
Ahmad ibn `Ali Al Thani
|Emir of Qatar
Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani